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The capital of Azerbaijan Baku is the largest industrial, economic and scientific and technical center of Transcaucasia, as well as the largest port on the Caspian Sea and the largest city in the Caucasus. Baku is located on the Absheron peninsula. The first mention of Baku dates back to the 5th century. The city consistently belonged to the state of the Shirvanshahs, the Safavid state and the Russian Empire. Of particular importance in the history of Baku is the so-called "oil boom" that began in the eighteenth century, when huge oil reserves were found on the Absheron Peninsula. To this period belongs the construction of outstanding architectural samples of the city.
Today Baku, with its history, architectural masterpieces and countless art treasures attracts many tourists from all over the world. People from all over the world come to witness the splendour of Baku.
The name of the Absheron peninsula comes from the phrase "salt water" (ab-water, sheron-salt in the Tata language).
The Absheron peninsula, which was inhabited since ancient times, has preserved a number of historical monuments: the Nardaran fortress of the XIV century with a high tower in Nardaran settlement, the Round Castle (1232) and the fourth-century castle in the Mardakan settlement, the Ateshgah fire temple (XVII- XVIII century) in the village of Surakhani, a castle of the mid 14th century in the village of Ramana, numerous ancient monuments of Baku, etc. The Gobustan State History Reserve is also located on Absheron. In 2007, the cultural landscape of rock carvings of Gobustan was included in the list of monuments of the World Cultural Heritage of UNESCO.